1 Why do we need to understand the horse's psychology?
A Because of their mental process of behaviour and of mind or spirit of the horse.
2 Describe the wild horses lifestyle.
Travelling miles as required daily for food, water, safety, the herd, reproduction .
3 What are the horses instincts?
Fight, flee, feed, reproduce.
4 terms for advantage
a herd animal - wants to be in a group of horses - lead a horse out that doesn't want to be catched with another horse.
b nomadic -horses travel for food and other requirements- will take changes to its local enviroment
c defensive - will fight its ground. You can see its reactions, stress, in its ears
d imitators - the downside can be that they can learn stable vices - but can be trained and will continue to imitate other horses behavoiur.
e curiousity - horses need to know whats going on - what others have - whos here - and will follow you or want to know what you may have as you lead them where you want to.
3 (again) why is it important to try to copy the horses lifestyle as far as possible?
It is important for conservation reasons, for certain breeds; New Forest etc. Any other horse not living wild is no more able to be kept as close as practical to their natural state.
We simply cannot reproduce natural living conditions, their enviroment is artificial, their food is scientifically calculated, their pasture restricted and cultivated, their feet dressed, their health monitored.
Yes we can give some hay and company.
4 Horse memories advantage and disadvantage
A few pats each time and our horse seems to remember in future how to approach and help as we negotiate all the different gates as we hack out. Sometimes our horse remembers things going wrong at certain points of our rides, and then other times doesn't.
Its an advantage to us how they can recall how to find their way around, and even riderless horses have used their memory to find themselves home. But a disadvantage would be them stopping at the jump because of what happened last time.
5 Acreage for a horse
The standard is 1.5 acres per horse the 1 acre afterwards - but beware of other considerations, such as water, access ,the quality of the ground.
6 Grazing lawns and roughs
Lawns are the area were the horse will continuosly graze until it looks like a lawn, green and short however these areas suffer fom overgrazing, weeds and soil compaction. Roughs are the areas the horse has fouled and will reqiure picking up or grazed by sheep/cows to encourage equine regrazing.
Go pick up pooh, and whilst you wander with your fork think; less worms, less roughs, more grass.
10 dealing with droppings
Topping, Spreading, Picking
11 why remove poisonous plants and non poisonous plants
Pasture management is about looking after the field removing poisonous plants for obvious reasons but also non poisonous as these may be invasive, such as nettle, dock etc and with re-sowing of herbs and grasses diversity can take place.
12 It is important to weed kill and lime to
a why is this
It is important to remove weeds to increase the pasture and to lime to restore the PH level to encourage the correct growth as required.
b To go to for advice you require a soil test for the field ph available form garden centres for the acid/alkaline balance and remedy. And to a farmers wholesaler for feed and weed thats correct for your ground.
13 Harrow and roll is done twice a year if possible, in the spring and autumn, what it means is that harrowing "scarifies" the ground removing weeds and scraping the ground and rolling encourages lateral growth to the grass - giving better cover.
14 Fencing -types
Post and rail, prefered horse fencing, safe in that the horse cant get stuck under it. Expensive nut lasting and easily fixed.
Hedge/wall, As above but more likely to keep the horse in,and found in older paddocks.
Wire and pig netting, a horse stuck in wire is everyones nightmare and although its cheap your horse isnt.
Electric - temporary, moveable, not secure.
Woefull, a mixture of fallen down/poor hedge, fence, wall, wire, the advantage may be the free fied you use, or the fact you can keep a horse but diadvantage that there is poor security and risk of accidents.
15 Field shelters
Windbreaks, and field shelters, sited in a well drained area fully open on one side. In an area thats least windy. Trees and hedges help.
16 Water for field horse
Bucket - onerous but clean
spring/river - easy but silt / pollution
ponds etc - should be fenced off and not used
bath - onerous to refill in hot weather, can be sharp edged.
trough -automatic - cant tell consumption but easy for the owner and fresh for the horse.
17 turn horse out
Apply halter or bridal if going on road, wear your hat, take to field turn to face you and remove halter. If more than one horse get help or take one at once.
18 Fetch horses in.
Slowly slowly catchy horsey. Take care safety first, call and quietly approach your horse if it doesnt come to you happily. Stroke his face and put the halter or lead rope around his neck. As question above wear your hat use bridal etc, get help if more than one horse or lead them in with another. It is my experience that bringing one horse out from a group is too unsafe to do on your own.
In an ideal world the horse will always come when called and not just at teatime on a wet February evening when he wants to be in and fed. A horse should be trained to come to you well, by repetition, rewards and kind words and praise. A pat, a few carrots and a nice experience for him and he will come when called. Patience will be required. If you are to catch a horse for hard work or wormers or something he doesnt like, instead of calling him - which he should associate with nice times, walk up to him and quietly pat and catch.
It is most important to always be aware of your safety when catching a horse, never take a bucket into a field, if there are other horses. If you are to reward your horse do it outside the field, not infront of other horses. If the horse is on its own you can use a bucket.
However we all have had the time when we have tried to catch the horse that doesnt want to be caught, and here are a few suggestions, walk gently and quietly towards the side of the horse, talking quietly to him, maybe offering a handfull of grass, dont stare at him, if you think he is about to turn away, you turn first and walk away, he shouldnt feel threatened by you, you may be doing this for some time.
I dont think that hiding the halter behind your back makes any differance but it doesnt want to be waved about either. Horses are curious creatures so you may get closer by calling another horse thats in the field.
It would be ideal if once you are near your horse that it would be pleased to accept the halter, but in reality you probably have one chance to get the lead rope or halter round his neck. If all this fails and the farrier thats waiting is looking at his watch every two minutes the next option is to get help and catch a different horse and start to lead it out of the field, and you will be surprised that yours becomes quite willing to be caught especially if he is the only horse left.
You should check your horse in its field at least twice per day.
21 Horse for bites, cuts and health, field for poisonous plants, garden waste droppings and security.